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syria. this interview recorded on the campus of george mason university in virginia. lasts about half an hour. .. there are there are. .. >> it went through a number of changes. it went from a centralized state of economy to a mixed economy that evolves from central state economy aspects and some market aspects, but not in the manner that actually allowed the market to be efficient at all. >> when did this change occur from centralized next? >> most of these countries, the late developed countries, they underwent a period where they had to actually involve the masses in order to gain support. and legitimacy. when this process, for a variety of reasons began to create problems for the regimes in power, and when external support and pressure for some of these regimes and for some of the directions that were unable at the time moving towards a market economy around the 1980s took place, you saw a lot of these third world regimes, or the global south, begin to move from a central economy to more market oriented economy and the international financial institutions like the imf and the
, marcusreddeker.com. >>> from the 17th annual texas book festival in successen, texas, we discuss the book "syria: the fall of the house oo assad." >> thank you so much foruch for spending part of your afternoony with us here.s i would like to welcome you alle on behalf of the professor and myself. this is afessor l wesonderful s. i'm saying that dispassionately, and we're so happy you're here.r i wanted to introduce the profe professor to you. he is asch to professor of middt history at trinity university it san antonio. professor lesch is a prolific writer writer and thinker about the the middle east and what's happening in the region. it's really a treat tosy a havem here today.he h w he's written his new book n b "syria: the fall of the house ou assad" which i'm hoping you'll m all purchase and get him toill sign. he signed my copy first so he f. has met extensively with met president assad and officials lg between 2004-2011, been in the middle east, studying the middle st east, making connections andeast friendships in the middle east for a quar ater century. the r why that's important is, o
to syria is like coming up from liberal humanists because we tend to say all dictators are bad, all democrats are good, you know, we eliminate and eraser distinctions and it's the distinctions that give the complexity we need to understand the world, and yet they ran a brutal dictatorship that was nothing like saddam hussein. and i had my passport taken away for ten days while the iraqi authorities when i was in kurdistan that time i was very near dayton nervous it i got back from the airport before i left and i was a journalist that got too close to my story and i was intent on eliminating saddam hussein. i believe like a lot of people in different western countries in the world and on both sides of the aisle that there was wmd. but more importantly, i believe the regime is suffocating and brutal and you couldn't trust it. you have to assume that it existed. the war turned out. i'm not a fatalist what we had a different strategies it could have been different. we cannot say that it wouldn't matter no matter what we did put on the other hand, a lot of the mistakes we made were impli
upon so soon, but, you know, at the time, syria was looking, you know, as the sequential arab revolts came into being, there was very few places where the united states had an easy or even a conceivable influence -- edge to come in and do something where the consequences were not dramatic. they were at least, you know, there could be a pos five, you know, of course, egypt, a long-time ally anchor in the middle east, supportive of israel, and tunisia was a little bit, but, by that point, already crossed the threshold and ali was out, and syria, the comparisons with libya are quite, you know, very different. it's a multisectarian society with lots and lots of, you know, connections to other powers into which are iran, lebanon, israel, you know, where disrupting or changing that relationship could have all sorts of consequences which are unknown. libya presented a -- was unique that that the libyans -- there was a popular uprising, there was a program that had been put forth by a small group of people who had put themselves forward instead of on the first unofficial, then increasingly of
of syria eventually. so we have to be very careful. be part of the settlement, with a gap between what people think about the settlement out of court and the jury-ish community and about the reality. maybe you can tell me, do you know what is the actual percentage of settlement of jewish homes occupying land in judea and samaria? sound settlement, what is actual on the ground that she had occupied the lands? anyone? >> is 3%. i wish it was 50, 90 or 100%. but it's not the case. it is vacant. the idea that the jews cannot leave, because we do not have peace i do not accept it. to date israel with arab israelis, 20% in the week. they live like i live, vote like i vote and nobody tell them if you've not lived there, you have to move out. we have to get to the understanding that it's not about the settlement. it's much deeper than that. [inaudible] >> that is the question? i am 41, ma'am. i do not -- and said what you want. did you get peace? what did it get? [inaudible] >> i think my point is very clear that history has told us we cannot wait and we cannot get to a point when people speak
with his younger brother forming what becomes the people's liberation army, travels through syria and other countries, and then he decides to go to kabul, where the soviet union has recently arrived, and it is there that you are born, 1982. >> uh-huh. >> so there's a -- i marked a little page here where your father writes to someone about his revolutionary arian rhode island. >> yes. >> we the pla are unique in many respects, official spokesman is a dog, wolf, and we have more commanders than fighters, first organization of pakistan's history that believes in fighting. we consider secrecy nothing to be secret about, and pla can make secrets more than friends, no one know exactly who is the chief. the official spokesman has ticks and likes to chew on borns. the official spokesman, well, undisciplined in personal habits. >> yes. >> so was that a true reflection of the character of his revolutionary activity? >> i think it was a reflection of the fact when they made the choice to confront the regime directly and militarily, they were 25 and 21 years old. they had, for two years, sacrificed the
better, but by that point it had crossed the threshold. syria, the comparisons with libya are quite, you know, it's very different. it's multi sectarian society with lots and lots of connections to other plot powers . lebanon, israel, disrupting or changing that relationship could have all sorts of consequences which are unknown. so libya presented -- was unique in that the libyans have a popular uprising. there was a program that had been put forth by a small group of people who had put themselves forward as sort of first unofficial but increasingly official spokesman of the libyan people. this was an opportunity for essentially president obama and the united states that makes some good on much of the content of the 2009 speech which is very important. i think people are potentially losing sight of that. the second take away is the question of intelligence and what we have known about what is going on in libya for the past 42 years and is remarkably little. you know, this is, i think also a symptom of a particular country that goes into it sanctions, blackouts because once camino, that
indonesia and what rights does an american jew, gay or woman in chile and syria? what obligations we have to the french nation to suggest we are citizens of the world destroys our understanding of the term and weakens us at the performance of the duties of the citizen. one might say that the american power was the 1969 moon landing, and since then, we'll be successful the empire in history according to the greatest access to prosperity, happiness and public life and history have been on the decline. this decline has given as inevitable. nothing lasts forever. this period of diminishing american hegemony, however, may be one of calfee age. we are the owners of the country and its board of directors, and we may find the strength to reasonably consider the options open to us in this confusing time, none of them is perfect. and this is a time we must make a moral choice which is to say a choice between the two flawed or bad alternatives. if we do not choose, the choice will be made for us by those uninterested at home and abroad by weakening the power of the american electorate. it's not a br
in september. the late anthony shadid has been nominated. he died in syria while covering syria for the washington post. his wife will be here representing him, and that's nada bachary. katherine boo has been nominated, "behind the beautiful forever," about mumbai, and anne applebaum has a book out and is scheduled on our q & a show in september. so we'll be interviewing those authors as we go. we'll be watching the red carpet here as some of the authors have their picture taken. right now we want to talk to the chairman of the national book foundation, and this is david steinberger. mr. steinbergers is also head of the become group what is the national book airport. >> given to the best american books in four categories, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and young people's literature, and you look at the people who have won this award, it's the pan of pantheons. saul bell wyoming. >> this began 63 years ago. do you know the history, why it began? >> it was group of people who were interested in making sure that great books had the greatest possible impact on the culture, and that's
the civil war in syria. he grew up in oklahoma, of all places, an american-lebanese family. he ended up fascinated by the middle east, became a reporter, and the life mission was to try to explain this region to americans, which is no easy thing to do. he covered his -- more than his share of wars issue and in the course of that, sort of his first marriage fell apart because he was always overseas covering the war. he ends up buying his family's old ramshackled house somewhere in lebanon. i forget the name of the village, and takes a year off to restore the house. it sounds like a movie, almost, which he does with great difficulty. the book, his memoir, blends in both lebanese history, and it's glorious past, which is sadly been destroyed through civil war, as well as his own personal story so we sort of -- it was -- shortly before the book came out, he died. he was no more than 40 or 45. >> host: sarah weinman? >> guest: well, i feel like in looking at this list, i feel an unmitigated surge to talk about how much i adored the katherine book and i made a joke on twitter that if her book
as the people of our brand or syria or cuba do. but the freedom collection to wish it dissidents and freedom advocates the way. we for young minds of education programs. were helping to build the free institutions of the middle east with women's fellowship since it will help wounded warriors and other veterans and their families through military service initiative. today is the president said this about economic freedom, which is the surest route to growth. as president bush wrote in his forward to 4% solution, free-market capitalism offers the most efficient and just way to order an economy. such a system allows individuals to decide the course of their alliance. this book does not exist in a vacuum. side of the 4% growth product had eight in nitish lays. the product began at smu in the spring of 2011. i know many of you were there. the hard top economists and started a website. we held a second conference on tax policy in may in new york and we have an event scheduled in september in chicago that will feature governor mitch daniels. like the project as a whole, this book seeks americans as
in syria. his book is a memoir. he grew up in oklahoma full places, and american lebanese family. became a reporter and his life mission was to try to explain, which is no easy thing to do. he covered more than an issue for in the course of the first marriage and death buying the family's old ramshackle house somewhere in lebanon. i forget the name of the village and takes a year off to restore the movie almost, which he does with great difficulty. the book, his memoir blends in both lebanese history and its glorious past, which is sadly destroyed or civil war as voices of personal story. so shortly before the book came out, he died. he missed about 40, 45. >> host: sarah weinman. >> guest: well, i feel looking at this list, and unmitigated searcher talk about how much i adore the book. i made a comment on twitter just kathryn booze did every single best of 2012 book it would be fine with me. it's a phenomenal piece of report it, but literature which he writes with a tremendous sense of empathy. she's a new yorker staff writer and previous recipient of the macarthur genius grant. her hus
of apparently related to an asthma attack while covering the war in syria. his book is a memoir, he grew up in oklahoma of all places, an american lebanese family, ended up fascinated by the middle east, became a reporter, his life mission was to try to explain this region to america which is no easy thing to do. he covered more than his share of wars and in the course of that, his first marriage fell apart because he was always overseas covering the war. the ends up buying his family's old ramshackle house somewhere in lebanon and takes a year off to restore the house. sounds like a movie almost which he does with great difficulty. his memoir blends in both lebanese history and its glorious past which was sadly destroyed through civil war as well as starting. shortly before the book came out he died. she must have been 40 or so, 45. >> sarah weinman. >> i feel like in looking at this list i feel unmitigated surge to talk about how i enjoy it the capt. book, if catherine booth's book made every best of 2012 list that would be fine by me. it is a phenomenal piece not only of reporting but li
went to syria now they get it from both sides. the state and whenever the rebellion is. we have that in the wake of being expelled. i met an old man who had to flee in 1970 with his wife and said christians did not see the writing on the wall and they should have. the same with egypt. now there is a terrible risk. a huge and christian population. the rich are leaving that they can afford a lawyer or the airplane ticket but what is left are the poor. where will they go on foot? sudan, libya and israel by a are putting up another wall. so they cannot go there either. it is an massive refugee problem waiting to happen in. a pattern repeating itself over and over. i know how to sound the alarm with what is coming with refugees. it will be a nightmare. we just finished with the manuscript. it is not a survey but an analysis of the authorities that persecute christians. there are so many we had to add an additional section in the book to cover it. it is a huge problem. the countries that have been expelled by the most obvious because the same thing happens to the christians now. and t
and you will have situations where radical extremist groups can hijack egypt or libya or syria or elsewhere were you don't have a strong push back which is what i'm suggesting we and our allies in the west need to help provide , support to these brave liberals and moderates in the muslim world who do want to push back but just need the tools to be able to do so. >> try and answer to that question. died and liberty. i think it goes to of the idea that in the concept of god that we have and the judeo-christian approach, there is a sole that each individual has a soul. and that means that each individual is an individual. there are no two alike. and that is the basis for quality. because that means no matter how strong you are, how bright you are, how rich you are, it doesn't matter. you have a soul. i have a soul. we are equal in that sense. that is the case than you have to have liberty because the individual, there is nothing like that individual's own decision to move the decision maker. that gets into the economics of things that we talk about in the public forum. so that is
an american jew, gay or a woman, enjoy in syria? to suggest we're citizens of the world destroys our understanding of the term and so weakens our performance of the duties of a citizen. one might say that the ap to gee of american power was the 1969 moon landing, and since then we have been in a decline. this decline is inevitable, nothing lasts forever. this period of diminishing american he generalny, however, may be one of healthy age. we citizens are the owners of of this country and its board of directors, and we may find the strength to reasonably consider the options open to us in this confusing time. one of them is perfect. and this is a sign we must make a moral choice which is to say a choice between two flawed or, indeed, bad alternatives. if we do not choose, the choice will be made for us by those interested at home and aprod and weakening the power of the american electorate. it's not a brave announcement, but it is our country to govern, to defend and to enjoy as long as we choose to set our minds to it. thank you. [applause] >> i think we're going to have a few questi
in 1958, a botched cue in syria i think and 57. and eisenhower's own advisers quietly start telling him the problems here, the father of the -- [inaudible] then like bob lovett and david bruce, smart guys. you've got a problem. and he says, you know, and you to get rid of dulles, allen does. his brother, john foster dulles, sector essay, a little harder to fire him, but more importantly, ike said it takes a strange kind of genius to run an intelligence service. and he's right about that. and allen dulles did have a strange kind of genius. so ike was reluctant to get rid of them. so he did. i think he regretted. susan's dad told me after the u2 got shut down he went to his father on the plane, the paris summit about to collapse her some, and said to him, dad, you should have fired back i. and ike blew up and basically said i'm the president and you're not. but it was little defensive about it because, yeah, he probably should have. these things are always clear in retrospect than they are at the time. ike was a great manager but he was arguably a little slow to get rid of people. he had
a broad swath of the opposition, broad enough that would have legitimacy with the opposition back in syria itself. but there are some attempts and people are thinking about these things-perhaps because of what happened in iraq in 2003. >> wonderful. one more. yes, please. >> what this likelihood that the regime will use chemical weapons and what should we or could we do if they do? >> good question. that's one of the questions that no one has an answer, understand what circumstances would the regime use chemical weapons. i suspect they don't want to use them because that would galvanize the exact international response they're trying to avoid. the don't want this type of mass blood-letting that will compel the international community to intervene much more assertively than it has. so i don't think they're going to use chemical weapons. the fear is, though, if the regime -- if the opposition gains the upper hand, if the regime is on its last legs will they want to go down in flames or will they want to launch a chemical attack against israel, for instance, desperately trying to turn a domes
priority than it was in the year past than the obvious higher priorities are of the middle east, syria, north korea, china, russia and so forth. i would imagine it's a considerably lower. >> did the policy wax and wane with new administration's? >> it did. the most was during the kennedy years. jack kennedy as i said was determined to do something that the cuba problem. he was obsessed, humiliated that the day. lyndon johnson can after kennedy and his obsession with vietnam so he declined precipitously. subsequent presidents such as gerald ford, jimmy carter made a very serious efforts to achieve a rapprochement with castro, quite the opposite of what kennedy was doing. so yes, cuba has waxed and waned and it's been a different kind of priority over these 50 years, so it is with american presidents. estimate on the reverse side, does cuba have good assets, did they have good assets in the u.s.? has the castro regime ever tried to assassinate a u.s
president, the syria president, the leader ofha ene hezbollah, and imt said, "not everybody is your friend." i' okay? the lure of facebook, and its sen trailty is great ntrality tos . when israeli soldiers were deployed to the west bank to capture militants suspected of planning attacks on israel, one soldier actually posted on facebook that on wednesday we clean up this particular town and the rest of the post told about the planned raid, as well as the soldier's unit. as a result, the defense forces had to call off the raid in the court-martial of a soldier. also, don't check your facebook page on the victim's computer and leave it open. so the guy makes off with all these diamonds in this woman's house. and it's so addictive that he can't leave the house to go to his car and uses smart phone. he goes on his facebook page and then doesn't close it. the west virginia police found him right away. number five is do not tweet how boring your new job is going to be. a 22-year-old woman gets offered a great job at cisco and she tweets cisco just offered me a job, now i have to get a steady pay
. to people in syria really deserve to have their entire homes destroyed in be put out on the street and wonder if they will be hit by sniper a sniper's bullet at any second? not one bit. so it's our job to clean up the mess. it's our job to straighten a place out. we are the first collectivities of protons, the protons that make you and me up 13.72 billion years old. they have been around for a long time. we are the first social project those protons have ever put together that have a conscience and they can look at these things and say this is not right. this is not just. this is not warm and compassionate and loving which means we are the first creatures capable of doing anything we can, the phrase it out green the soul singer gave me while he was driving me around memphis and showing me the local vatican which was elvis's mansion, anything you can conceive and believe you can achieve. well, it's true and it's our obligation to dream these things, to dream of a more just, kind and loving cosmos and to make it happen. if that is our job, if there were goda god, we are in. if there
to syria to fully, and they are not getting it from both sides. they are getting it from the state and they're getting it from whatever the rebellion is made up of, which is changing every day. so we have that with the christians in the wake of the jews being -- a man, an old man who had to fully in 1970 with his wife. and he said the christians didn't see the writing on the wall. they didn't see coming. and they should have seen it coming. because saturday people, sunday people. same thing in egypt air egypt is at terrible risk now. there's a huge christian population. what's happening is, the ones who are rich are leaving are the ones who can afford a lawyer or an air ticket are leaving. but what's left are the very poor. where are they going to go on foot likes sudan? libby and israel. israel is putting another wall up because they get so many infiltrators from african countries that they don't know what to do with them all. so they will not be up to walk there either. it's a massive refugee album waiting to happen. it's the pattern that repeated itself over and over again, and i don't e
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